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Published by The A. N. Palmer Co. 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

The American 

By pupil of <'*. H. Lockwood 


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The Bliss System is the only system on the market in which all business is 
done over the counter by actual face-to-face transactions. This method naturally 
creates great enthusiasm among the students and helps to increase the patronage of 
the Commercial Department. 






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The plan of fingering is clear and simple. No an- 
tiquated or stereotyped method to puzzle and con- 
fuse the pupil. The keyboard is shaded for the 
different fingers, and one glance shows the pupil 
just what finger to use. Over two thousand lines 
of fingering exercises on words and sentences are 
furnished to the pupil. 

It carries the, student up, step by step, from the 
simplest words" to the most complicated tabular 
work, giving new and valuable rules in every con- 
nection. It is graded in such a manner that the 
student becomes an expert operator without any 
apparent effort, and with very little work on the 
part of the teacher. 

Each page of exercises is arranged to end uni- 
formily, thereby making a neat page, giving the 
student an incentive to accuracy, neatness and 
method, and teaching the use of the marginal 
stops. All the words, phrases and sentences given 
are of uniform length. . 

One whole page is devoted to valuable hints to 
the teacher, telling how to use the work to the best 
advantage, and showing how to obtain the best re- 

Another page instructs the student, in a clear and 
comprehensive manner, how to master the subject 
of TYPEWRITING BY TOUCH, and how to make 
the best use of the book to that end. 

It gives the best hints for gaining speed in typewriting, 
which alone are worth the price of the book to any teacher or 
student. The tabulated work is most extensive, and the im- 
portance of this class of work is conceded by every teacher of 
experience. In many offices the greater part of the work to 
be done is tabulations. The student should be thoroughly 
drilled in this line of work while in the school room. The 
examples given are taken from actual business. 


Liberal Discount to Schools. 
Teachers' Examination Copy, postpaid. 34c. Mention school 

Adopted by the High Schools of New YorK, 
Brooklyn and other leading cities. 



erly "Short Co 

i Shorthand." 


<J Short Lessons, simply graded— no discouragement. 

•I Words and Sentences introduced in the first lesson. 

<J Business Letters introduced in the seventh lesson. 

1 Position Writing from the commencement. 

<J Phrases taught from the fifth lesson. 

•J Reporting Style taught from the commencement. 

<I Finality of Outline— no form introduced before the prin- 
ciple governing it has been explained. 

Revolutionizing Ihe Teaching of Shorthand. 

What a Well Known Teacher Says. 

"The revised and enlarged edition of 'Short Course' will 
meet with the hearty approval of every teacher and will be 
welcomed by pupils. The chapter on Speed Practice, the 
lists of phraseograms and tables of the alphabet, vowels and 
double consonants, the fifty-three graded and hypenated busi- 
ness letteis and other drill exercises contained in the pages ad- 
ded to 'Short Course'— these additions make the road to aman- 
uensis speed comparatively easy for the student who has mas- 
tered the principles contained in the forty fascinating lessons. 
In saying that the revised book now entitled 'Course in Isaac 
Pitman Shorthand' is the most practical, pedagogical short- 
hand text published, I believe I merely express what hun- 
dreds of others have already said. In changing about one 
hundred and fifty High School pupils from a Pitmanic mod- 
ification to Isaac Pitman Shorthand as presented in 'Short 
Course,' I have not heard a single objection or complaint 
from pupils and school authorities, nor have I met with any 
discouragement from pupils. The reason is obvious: Each 
lesson is complete in itself. The pedagogical presentation 
of a few principles at a time, together with copious lists of 
words, sentences and letters illustrating these principles, 
and no other principles not previously explained, and the 
fact that outlines are given first in their briefest practical 
form (and never changed), make the learning of shorthand 
fifty per cent, easier than any other method I have ever seen 
in any book. Your book is revolutionizing the teaching of 
shorthand. "-E. H. CRAl'ER, Instructor in Shorthand, 
Paierson (X. J.) High School. 

Cloth, gilt lettering. 241 pp. $1.50. Liberal discount 
to schools and teachers. 

Send for particulars of a special course to 

Teachers, and copy of "Which System" 

and "Pitman's Journal." 

ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, 31 Union Square, New York 

Publishers of-. 


Cumulative Speller and Shorthand Vocabulary," 75 els. 
Taquigrafia Espanola de Isaac Pitman," $1 .25. 



"By Their Fruits Shall Ye Know Them" 

The real test of a business practice course is what the student learns from it. 

It is not a matter of rainbow colored business papers, or gaudy-looking blank books, big pic- 
tures showing students doing "actual business." 

The best course is the one that keeps the student busy learning and doing the thing he needs 
to know and do when he gets into a real business office. That is why 


are becoming so popular with school men who want their students to make good when they take 
positions. They are practical from the start and waste none of the student's time with obso- 
lete bookkeeping and needless time-consuming routine. 

"Your new Modern Inductive presents the most lucid and logical development of double 
entry that I have ever seen" are the words of a well-known and successful business school man. 

This "new idea" beginner's course is supplemented by a number of equally attractive and 
practical advanced sets. 

Remember. Our courses are so planned as to give you your choice of either individual or 
community, face to face transactions from the start, an advantage never before offered in any 

It will pay you to investigate. Free samples and full information to all teachers. Don't 
delay, write today. 


"The Up=to=date People." 




Home office, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where all correspondence 
omittances should be sent. 
Chicago office. Room 809, 151 Wabash Avenue. 
New York office, Room 401, 32 Union Square. 


The American Penman is published in two Editions: The" Stu- 
dent's Edition contains all of the features that it has contained during 
past years, and that have made it the leading penmanship publica- 
tion of the world. 

The Professional Edition is a publication of the Student's Edition 
with sixteen additional pages devoted to department work along 
business training lines, articles from leading educators, Round Table 
talks, school news, convention reports, etc. The Professional Edition 
is printed on enamel book paper, thus making the typographical ap- 
pearance especially attractive. 


Palmer's Penmanship Budget is a complete school of penmanship 
in business and ornamental writing, newspaper illustration, pen 
drawing and automatic pen work. 

The Budget is a book of 136 pages, and the first forty-nine pages 
are devoted to a course in muscular movement business writing by 
A. N. Palmer, the remaining pages being divided among the branches 
of Penmanship above enumerated, and dozens of illustrations by 
leading penmen of America. 

Palmer's Penmanship Budget has been worth hundreds op 
dollars to many teachers and students. 


Students' Edition, one year without premium $ .65 

Students' Edition, one year, with a copy of Palmer's Penman- 
ship Budget 1 .00 

Professional Edition, one year, without premium 1 .00 

Professional Edition, one year, with a copy of Palmer's Pen- 
manship Budget 1 . 50 

Canadian subscriptions ten cents extra for the Student s Edition 
and twenty cents extra for the Professional Edition. 

A. N. PALMER, Editor 

W. C. HENNING, Associate Editor 

THE A. N. PALMER COMPANY, - Publishers 

Advertising Columns are 13 ems wide. 


In our regular advertising columns, advertisements from reliable 
persons or firms will be inserted at the following rates: 

One inch per month $2 . 50 

One inch two months 4 . 50 

One inch three months 6.00 


Discounts will be given for long term contracts and large amounts 
of space. 


The American Penman, with more than a hundred thousand readers 
every month, is the finest advertising medium of its class. It covers 
the business college and commercial training school field completely. 
It reaches every progressive commercial and penmanship teacher in 
the United States and Canada. It has a large number of subscribers 
among public school workers, and it goes to hundreds of bookkeepers 
and general office clerks. 


Subscribers desiring to have their addresses changed should 
write us as par in advance of publication day as possible, and 
it is absolutely necessary that the former as well as the pres- 
ent address be given. unless subscribers conform to this 
simple request they cannot be served promptly. 

We prefer that remittances should be made by draft, postoffice 
money order or express money order. Currency sent unregistered 
is at sender's risk. 

The A. N. Palmer Company, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 







• ii — ^«ii^»i »■ < tf^ l ^ ii' «■ » Q^mH% - ii m 

What Others Have Learned by Experience. It Pays to Investigate. 

"Chartier Shorthand is far superior to any other system we have ever used."— Brown's Business 
College, Lincoln, Neb. 

"There is nothing to equal Chartier Shorthand. "—MacChesney Business College, Paterson, N. J. 
"It is the greatest system ever published."— Bliss Business College, Columbus, Ohio. 

"With Chartier Shorthand students save so much time for other things. It is great."— Beutel Busi- 
ness College, Tacoma, Wash. 

"We formerly taught Pitman and Gregg. About six months ago we started six students on Char- 
tier. To-day we are teaching it almost exclusively."— Acme Business College, Seattle, Wash. 

"We think Chartier Shorthand the greatest system ever devised."— Western School of Commerce, 
Stockton, Calif. 

"After thoroughly investigating Chartier Shorthand, we discarded both Pitman and Gregg."— 
Metropolitan Business College, Dallas, Texas. 

"Chartier Shorthand saves so much time for other things and therein its greatest beauty lies." — 
Portland Business College, Portland, Ore. 

"There is nothing like Chartier Shorthand for ease in learning and rapidity in writing. Its reading 
power is something wonderful."— Rubicam Shorthand School, St. Louis, Mo. 

"It is a wonderful system of Shorthand." — Miles Business College, Detroit, Mich. 

"We have displaced Pitman for Chartier."— Davis Business College, Toledo, Ohio. 

"It is so simple that a child can learn it. It has equally as great advantages from the speed point 
of view, as other standard systems."— Eastman Business College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Behnke- Walker Business College of Portland, Oregon, experimented with the system last spring 
by teaching a class in it. This convinced them and their initial order was for five hundred books. 




















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Business Letter Writing 

One of the neatest and brightest little works 
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Single copy sent postpaid for SO cents. 

New Commercial Arithmetic 

A book of 479 pages thoroughly covering the 
subject. Copy sent postpaid, $2. 



High School 

Commercial Law 

Business Speller 

Try a Box of Musselman's 
Perfection Pens, 25 cents. 

For full information and sample pages, write 



id-class matter, April 10, 190G, at the postoffice at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 

Twenty-Fourth- Year 


Number 11 

AT the late convention in Pittsburg, I referred in an 
address before the National Penmanship Associ- 
ation to the mistakes many supervisors of writing 

TL , Y , , , , are making. What I said was so 

Ine Work ot the vigorously applauded by my 
Supervisor of Writing friend, Mr. D. W. Hoff, super- 
visor of writing in the public 
schools of Lawrence, Mass., that I concluded it rang true, 
according to his notions. I have been reading the stenog- 
rapher's transcript of that part of my address, and have 
concluded that I did hit upon some partly hidden truths. 
We all know of large public school systems in which 
supervisors of writing are drawing good salaries and 
showing no adequate results. There are public schools 
where the supervisor is an obstacle in the path of penman- 
ship progress, and vet if he has the backing of his superin- 
tendent he might make his work verv fruitful. I shall be 
glad to have supervisors and others discuss this subject 
through the columns of The American Penman. 

The following is what I said in my address: "Many 
supervisors of writing in graded schools who are expert 
penmen and really good teachers of practical writing, are 
struggling with a problem which they seem unable to solve, 
because they are attempting to carry a burden which be- 
longs to the grade teachers. The business of the super- 
visor is to teach the teachers how to teach the children, and 
he who undertakes the responsibility of class room results 
is adopting a plan that spells partial or complete failure 
from its ijiception. Many times the regular grade teachers 
of public schools have said to me. 'We have nothing to do 
with the teaching of penmanship, because a supervisor is 
employed to do the work.' Unon inquiry, I have ascer- 
tained that he was able to visit their class rooms once in 
two weeks, once a month, once a term, or once a year, de- 
pending upon the size of the school system. Personal in- 
vestigation in such cases has disclosed as poor writing as 
could possibly be developed under any system. Without 
the co-operation of the grade teachers it would be im- 
possible for you or for me to handle successfully the pen- 
manship of a system of schools in which there were as 
many as two thousand pupils. In a system of only that 
size, one could not know the pupils intimately, could not 
be with them constantly, and hence could carry out no 
scheme of correlation connecting penmanship with spelling, 
composition, and other written work. 

"Some supervisors are succeeding because they are plac- 
ing the responsibility for class room results where it be- 
longs — on the shoulders of the grade teachers. They, in 
after school Conferences, teach the teachers as they expect 
them in linn to teach the pupils. The teachers practice, 
and perhaps give the supervisor a fixed number of pages 
of their practice work each week for examination and cor- 
rection. This plan is continued until they become expert 
in execution as well as in teaching. As new teachers enter, 
they eume under the personal instruction of the supervisor, 
who drills them and teaches them how to write, in order 
that they in turn may teach their pupils. He goes from 

building to building, giving model class room lessons, not 
especially for the benefit of the pupils, but to teach the 
teachers how to handle their classes successfully in this im- 
portant branch. Under such a plan, it is not very difficult 
for superintendents and school boards to locate the am- 
bitious and successful grade teachers of penmanship. In 
school buildings in which the principals take their- logical 
positions as the leaders in this branch as well as in others, 
the results will be highly satisfactory. In other buildings 
in which the principals are too diplomatic or too unin- 
terested to insist upon close adherence to the successful, 
well tried plan, the writing of the classes will suffer, and 
will be so poor in contrast with the work shown in other 
buildings that the matter will likely be investigated by the 
school officials. The real test of the ability of the super- 
visor of writing is his ability to teach the teachers who are 
under him ; their teaching knowledge being reflected daily 
in their work with the pupils, entirely outside of any special 
penmanship drills. 

PUBLIC school officials, principals and teachers know 
that the systems of penmanship they have been using 

have not led to practical results. They know that 
something has been radically 

Turn on the wrong, but very often they do 

Light not know what. Nearly all will 

welcome specific information ; in- 
formation that will inform; that will enable them to under- 
stand why results in writing have been so poor as to make 
public school penmanship a reproach in business circles. 
Honest, conscientious, ambitious teachers will not only be 
thankful for enlightenment regarding past performances 
which have led to partial or complete failures, but will be 
equally thankful for specific information that will enable 
them to start right — even though they may be compelled to 
begin all over, and through study and practice learn what 
they have never known — how to write a good business 
style in order to become the real leaders of their pupils in 
this important branch. Teachers of practical writing 
everywhere can do a great, good, and lasting work, by 
seeking public school workers and showing them what has 
been wrong with the penmanshin of America. Soft words 
may turn away wrath, but they will not lead to a great and 
sweeping reform in the instruction of millions of public 
school children who have a right to demand what has 
long been withheld — training that will lead to a style of 
writing embodying legibility, rapidity, ease and endurance. 

Ihave accumulated at the New York City office of The 
A. N. Palmer Company at considerable cost, a large 
'number of clippings from daily papers relating to the 
A p I ■ subject of writing. Vertical writ- 

A Penmanship nlL , j, as Deeri verv fruitful as an 

Symposium editorial theme, and the seal of 

condemnation has been placed 
upon that particular style of chirography in almost every 
item that has reached me. Next month I shall begin the 
publication of these clippings in The American Penman. 
This symposium will be continued from month to month, 
and will prove very interesting to our readers. It will re- 
flect the opinions of business men as well as editors. The 
demand for more practical methods of teaching writing is 
most insistent, and like Banquo's ghost, will not down. 
I shall be very thankful for any press clippings, on the 
subject of writing that the Penman's readers will send to 
me at 32 Union Square, New York City. 

Extra prints of the Lincoln portrait, like the one on the cover, can be secured for 30c each, from G. H. Lockwood, 
Lockwood-Stoltz Art School, Kalamazoo, Michigan. 



} Co) T^=4 




STUDENTS should avoid the tendency to drop back 
into the habit of using the fingers. Keep in mind 
that the light gliding movement used in the first oval 
drills must be applied to all copies. Be sure that the po- 
sition of the arm is good ; see that it plays freely on the 
large muscle in the sleeve without the slightest resistance 
in any way. Do not neglect to review the oval exercise 
frequently. The small o and m exercises should be re- 
viewed almost daily in order that you may fix the habit of 
writing with a free movement. 

In drill 156, for the development of capital B, let the 
arm and pen play forward and backward as in the push- 
and-pull drill given in our October lesson, and then finish 
as you would the letter. The count is I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, 8, 
with a slight pause on the 6. Observe that the straight 
line part of the exercise is not as high as the oval part of 
B. Notice the finishing turn in this drill. In making 
capital B as indicated in drill 157, make a slight pause at 
the blue line before retracing to make the last part. Try 
to make the top well rounded and as broad as the bottom. 
Form the small loop at half the height, and form a dot at 
the finishing point. The count is 1, 2, 3. The words given 
in drills 159 and 160 will be found excellent for applying 
this letter. Observe how the joining is made between B 
and the letter following. Be sure to write these words 
with a continuous motion, and avoid lifting the pen be- 
fore the word is completed. In writing sentence 161, ob- 
serve carefullv the uniform spacing between letters and 
words. The spacing between the words should be greater 
than that between the letters. 

Study the style of T indicated in copy 162. While this 
letter may be made in a variety of ways, it is believed that 
the style given will be found easier and better adapted to 
rapid writing than any other. It is quite like a large figure 
one, with a cap similar to the ordinary style of T. In 
making the stem of this letter be sure not make it too 
tall ; avoid a loop at the top, and be careful not to leave 
too much space between the starting point and stopping 
point at the base line. In forming the cap, begin with a 
small loop, close to the top. and finish with a short com- 
pound curve, or wave-like line. The style of F indicated 
in 165 corresponds to the style of T and needs no further 
explanation except that the cross line in this letter is at 
about half its height. The words in lines 163-64 and 166 
will furnish good practice in applying these letters. Avoid 
the tendency to carry the top of T and F too far to the 
right, as this gives the page a stringy appearance. 

In writing the name F. H. Kimmer, notice how F, H, 
and K are linked together, and be sure to preserve uni- 
form spacing between them. 

Capital J begins with a reversed oval stroke, therefore 
preliminary practice on the reverse oval in connection with 
this letter, as indicated in 169, will prove beneficial in de- 
veloping the proper motion for the top part of J. Ob- 
serve that the top is larger than the bottom. Notice just 
where the pen strikes the paper, — below the line, also that 
the first upward stroke is a full left curve. Try to main- 
tain uniform slant and size. Make twelve letters to a line. 
In writing the words given in 171 and 172 be sure not to 
lift the pen in passing from J to the letter following, and 

'"/3 /3 /9 /3 /3 /3 /?/?/?/?/?/? /3 

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do not lift the pen until the word is written completely. 
Do not fail to give special attention to the formation of 
the various letters used in these words, as the w'ords given 
from time to time contain letters which have been prev- 
iously practiced and thereby furnish a continuous review. 

If capital J has been mastered, little difficulty will be ex- 
perienced in making a good capital I. The exercise given 
in 174 is a good one to develop the movement used in 
making this letter. Let the pen strike the paper below 
the blue line, move upward and to the right with a full 
left curve, as in capital J, and finish with a retraced oval. 
The count should be I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Observe that the 
top of capital I is narrower than the top of J ; therefore 
aim to make a shorter turn at the top of I than at the 
top of J. Notice the two styles of ending as indicated 111 
175 and 176. It is suggested that you master 175 before 
attempting 176. The count for 175 is 1-2, with an accent 
on the 2, where a dot is formed as a definite ending. In 
176, the count is 1, 2-3. This latter style is the convenient 
one to use at the beginning of a word as indicated in 177. 

Capital S is a graceful letter, but a difficult one to form 
nicely. The initial stroke is a full right curve, and not a 
straight line as we often find it. The downward stroke 

which reallv forms S, is a compound curve which should 
cross the initial stroke at half its height. Drill 179 will 
tend to develop the movement used in making this letter. 
The count should be 1-2, 3, 4, 5, 6, dwelling slightly on 1. 
Observe the fullness of the curve at the base line. Drill 
181 is a good one to use in connection with this lesson, as 
it reviews the small s exercise, brings to mind the similarity 
of the ending of small s and capital S, and gives practice 
in joining capital S as you do in writing words. Be sure 
to close these letters at the base. The swing from this 
letter to 4he letter following is the same as that used in 
capital I. 

The count for drill 184 is I, 2-3, 4, 5, 6, dwelling slightly 
on the 2 before forming the retraced oval. The beginning 
stroke of G should be the same as that of capital S. Make 
a well rounded turn a little below half the height of the 
letter, and make the angle at half the height. A slight 
pause at the angle will enable you to avoid making a loop 
at this point. The ending of this letter should be the same 
as that of capital I and capital S. The count for G is 
1, 2-3, 4. Study drills 1S6, 187, 188, and 189; practice each 
until it can be written with a light, free movement, and as 
nearly like the copy as possible. 

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'**■ ^2T~ ^~" €^ 4i €^ ^/ ^Z~ ^T~ 







By Frank Hook, Temple College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

By S. C. Bedinger, Hill's Business College, Sedalia, Mo. 


By T. B. Bridges, Heald-Dixon College, Oakland, Calif. 






(Sixth Month.) 

IN order to develop form, you must criticise your_ work 
most rigidly. After you write a line, go over it and 
t mark every incorrect stroke. Then write it again, 
striving to overcome these defects. Work them out one at 
a time. Don't aim to do the whole thing at once. Con- 
stant repetition alone will not secure the desired results. 

Some people think they can't write because of nervous- 
ness. This is true with finger action, but it is not the case 
with muscular movement. With the movement going at 
full force, the nerves become quiet and will not in the least 
affect your work. The nerves begin to make themselves 
apparent when you retard the movement too much for the 
sake of form. A proper mental attitude will bring the 
nerves under good control. 

Drill 108. Do not lift the pen in making the spiral 
and retraced oval, but let the motion be continuous. 

"When ycr shutin' bear, ef ye want 'im. don't never 
think o' nothin' but the bear," remarked the old hunter in 
"D'ri and I." If you want to make this exercise look like 
anything, think only of a spiral and a retraced oval. 

Drill ico. The word "now" makes a very nice criss- 
cross drill. Work it up in your best style. 

Drill no. We now take up letters in sentences, using 
those which have certain letters predominating. In the 
first sentence each word ha; the letter a. The same con- 
dition is also true with the third sentence. The others 
have their particular letter to a greater or less extent. Let 
us remind you that movement, form, close study, and two 
pages are the things that you must give to each sentence. 
Drop out any of them and your progress will be quite 
limited. . . .,, , , , 

Fifteen minutes of severe criticism will develop better 
forms than a whole hour of indifferent practice. 

If your movement is becoming slow, and you have a 
tendency to stop in the middle of a word, just change to 
some of the movement drills we had in the first lessons, 
and work up your power again. 

Do you realize what a demand there is in this country 
today for good business writers? Are you one? Are you 
doing all you possibly can to become one? If you really 
want to get your writing up where you may know it has 
commercial value, turn back to the first of this course, as 
soon as you have finished the practice for this month, and 
work up in your very best style two lines of writing for 
each line given. Do this with the entire course. Then cut 
it into slips with about four lines to a slip and mail them 
to the American Penman. If your work possesses sufficient 
merit, they will issue to you a beautiful Award which you 
will prize as one of the best recommendations that you 
can carry. If your writing is not quite up to the standard 
for service in business, they will ask you to practice a few 
weeks longer, which will be one of the greatest favors they 
could confer. 

Don't let that discourage you, but set your jaw a little 
firmer and try them again. 

We will close the course with a few easy combinations of 
capitals and some signatures. Study closely the connecting 
strokes and execute the drills with a rapid movement. 

As a farewell, I desire to express my appreciation of the 
interest you have taken in these lessons. If they have 
started only a few on the road to success in business writ- 
ing, I shall feel greatly repaid for my efforts. 

Trusting you will continue your practice until you have 
attained a high degree of proficiency, I remain, 
Yours with best wishes, 

W. D. McDaniels, 

Oshkosh, Wis. 

(_^-^€>^Z-<J^-^^<^Z-^^ : ^> 

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JZX^^y J&&Z^&^J&Q£^uJ 


By J. E. Leamy. Packard School, New York City. 




By CARL C. MARSHALL. Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

I AM not of those who declare with positiveness, "There 
is no such thing as luck." There is such a thing as 
luck — at least the dictionary says so — and I think the 
statement is well backed up bv average human experience. 
It is common to deny the existence of luck, but I, for one, 
can see no good in denying or ignoring the evident facts. 
Webster defines luck as "that which happens to a person, 
and which comes without foresight, intention or expec- 
tation." Now, things, both good and bad, do "happen" to 
most of us in just that way. Sometimes there is a series 
of these unforeseen occurrences, and we say in our ex- 
pressive everyday English, "So-and-so has 'bad luck,' " or 
"good luck," as the case may be. The one determinate 
and significant thing about luck is, that no amount of ef- 
fort on our part may either avoid it or bring it about. 
Otherwise, it is not luck, but result. And right here comes 
the confusion. People do not discriminate between luck 
and result — between the things that "happen," and which 
are beyond foresight or prevention, and those other things 
which may, by a given line of action, be brought about or 
avoided. When a man gets a broken leg by stepping on a 
loose board in the sidewalk, or is put out of business by a 
railway accident, it is bad luck, pure and simple, because 
the misfortune could neither be reasonably foreseen nor 
avoided. But when a chap gets his collar-bone smashed 
in a football game, it isn't luck, for he gets what he could 
reasonably expect, and what he might wisely have avoided, 
unless he felt that the matter of breaking his neck was not 
a serious concern either to himself or society. So with 
favorable events. If a man buys a farm to make a living 
thereon, and afterward a railroad is built through his 
country, and his farm is chosen for a town site, his fortune 
is clearly a case of luck. But if he had good reason to 
believe that the road was to be built, and chose his land 
with regard to the probable location of the road, and of the 
town site, it was not luck. In the chain of incidents that 
make up life, many things come to us that are neither at- 
tainable nor preventable by any amount of foresight, and 
we must all take our chance with these, and should take it 
with philosophy, being neither demoralized by the good 
luck, nor discouraged by the bad. 

Much the greater number of the good things of life, 
however, are the natural results of effort, while our ills 
are mostly the results of badly directed effort, or of no 
effort at all. Weak and "doless" people have always been 
prone to charge up to "bad luck" many ills that are not 
matters of luck at all. Also, they rest on their oars wait- 
ing for the wind of good luck to fill their sails, and if it 
fails to come, justify themselves accordingly. I doubt if 
society is afflicted with any more damaging evil than the 
widely prevalent tendency of people to "trust to luck" in- 
stead of relying on their own efforts. Nothing else — not 
even intemperance or immorality — so saps and rots human 
character as the gambling habit, whether it is manifested 
in shooting craps, in million dollar "deals" in Wall street, 
or in the loafing idler's game of "waiting for something to 
turn up." Reliance upon luck is the basis of the gambler's 
creed, and the essential poison of the gambler's creed is 
the willingness to take value from another without giving 
an equivalent. This state of mind is always immoral, and 
frequently (and quite logically) leads to criminality. The 
man who by the gambler's code will take unearned money 
from another, cultivates a moral callousness that will soon 
enable him to take the money without the application of 
the code. An "honest gambler," that is, one who will take 
no secret advantage of his opponent, probably does not 

exist. Every gambler is a potential thief, and the police 
court records abundantly bear out this statement, extreme . 
though it may appear. 

The worst effect of gambling, however, both to society 
and to the individual, is primarily economic. Whenever a 
man begins to "trust to luck," he begins, in the same de- 
gree, to lessen his trust in work. The gambler (and by 
"gambler" I mean anybody who depends upon luck for 
success) is almost never an effective worker either with 
hand or brain. This is why ninety-nine per cent of them 
are industrial failures There is not enough luck in life 
to make it a dependable thing. On the average, there is 
as much bad luck as good, and therefore no margin of 
profit. The gambler soon finds this out, and tries by foul 
means to. get the balance in his favor. That is why no 
"successful" gambler is honest. Not long ago, a prominent 
Chicago pool-room gambler was qouted as saying, "If you 
want to win in the betting game you must get in on the 
percentage side." This theory, aided by a lax enforcement 
of law, has made wealthy men of a score or so of "big" 
Chicago gamblers, but what has it done for their thousands 
of weak victims who have supplied the gambler's profits 
for the privilege of following up the "dope sheets ?" 

My young friend, if you have in you any of the taint of 
the luck-seeker, for your life's sake, get rid of it. Some 
"good luck" may occasionally come your way. Very well, 
accept it if it comes legitimately. If bad luck also comes, 
meet it smilingly as a man should, but waste none of your 
precious energies in waiting for the good luck or bewail- 
ing the bad. Luck, whether good or bad, has one superior 
and master, and that is Work. Hitch your train to that 
engine, and the luck question for you will be effectually 



THE ape is an animal of the monkey family, which 
bears a strong resemblance to man, or to which man 
bears a strong resemblance. I am not certain which 
would be the more appropriate definition. One peculiar 
trait of the ape is his tendency to imitate the actions and 
habits of those about him. From this we get the saying 
that a man apes another. By thjs we mean that he imi- 
tates or copies. 

The world is full of men who go through life aping, or 
imitating others. They add nothing to what their pre- 
decessors have done ; while they perhaps are not content 
to "stand pat," or let well enough alone, and while they 
would welcome an improvement of conditions, they do 
nothing to bring about this improvement. 

Now we recognize the fact that the world always has 
been and always will be made up of all kinds of people ; 
but we could divide them into two classes, those who are 
leaders and those who are followers. 

There is always a demand for those who are contented 
and willing to do things others' brains have originated. 
The thinkers can no more carry out and put into practice 
their progressive ideas than the commander-in-chief can 
fight the battles, or the captain attend to the details of 
running the ship, or the head of the great department 
store serve all his customers ; but unless somebody de- 
veloped new ideas, the world's progress would be at a 

The men who are prominent in the minds of the people 
today, and the men of the past whose memories stand out 
in history as shining lights, are the men who have 



achieved something. They are the men who thought out 

What enables us to call to mind so readily the great men 
of history and the great men of today? Simply the original 
things they have done to Dromote the \vorld',s progress. 

Well, this all sounds very good, and there are perhaps 
few who would not emulate great men if the way of doing 
so could be made clear. It is true that circumstances 
sometimes pave the way for great deeds, or bring about 
opportunities to do something commendable, but these op- 
portunities become ivasted opportunities unless we are pre- 
pared to take advantage of them. 

The men who stand head and shoulders above others 
in their various professions and occupations are those 
who have been willing to sit down and think out some- 
thing that nobody else had thought of. Of course, all 
men who do things take advantage of all that other men 
have done along the same lines ; this is perfectly legitimate. 

Progressive men of one generation should build upon 
the achievements of the past ; otherwise it would be almost 
impossible to make advancement along any line. These 
achievements are discovered by reading. It is the readers 
and thinkers who do things. Reading counts for little ex- 
cept the passing of time and entertainment, unless we 
think about the things we read. This develops reasoning 
power. A distinguished lawyer and lecturer of my ac- 
ruaintance said he mastered his law by reading several 
pages on a given topic and then going over the hills alone 
where he could think about what he had read and reason 
it out. 

Now the suggestion I should like to make is this : 
Learn to think for yourself. If you are studying book- 
keeping, do more than read and perhaps ^memorize some 
rules ; the sum of the debits equals the sum of the credits ; 
why docs it? Think it out. If your ledger doesn't balance, 

will you make a bee-line for the teacher? No, think it out. 
You will have more confidence in yourself if you do. 
Don't let anyone show you where you made an error, but 
find it yourself and see how proud you will feel after you 
do it. If you encounter a problem in arithmetic that 
puzzles you, don't ask for assistance until you have ex- 
hausted every means at your command. Read and re-read 
the problem ; try to understand clearly the different steps 
of the solution, and then verify everything — think it out. 

We find the circumference of a circle by multiplying the 
diameter by 3.1416; why? We invert the divisor before 
multiplying, in division of common fractions; why? There 
are hundreds of little things we do just because somebody 
said so, but we don't know why. Of course, you may not 
care why, but would not these or some of the many others 
like them do to practice on until we get the habit of 
diggin£r beneath the surface of things? 

In this way you become self-reliant. You strengthen 
your reasoning powers, just as a boy becomes a great ball 
plaver ; not by wishing he were one ; not by asking some- 
body how to be one ; but bv keeping overlastingly at it. 
Persistence helps, too. A little boy said to his papa, "Papa, 
I want a goat." Papa said, "Yes, Willie, I'll get you a 
goat some day." Willie repeated, "Papa, I want a goat." 
"Yes, Willie." Then Willie began to dance and yell, "I 
want a goat, I want a goat, I want a g-o-a-t !" And he 
got a goat. Moral : keep at it and you will succeed. 

This habit of independent thinking will grow, and as 
the boys who practice it become men, they will have strong, 
well-developed minds able to grasp the great questions of 
the day. The old maxim, "Knowing is power," is truer 
todav than ever before. The world must look to its think- 
ing men for its leaders in all the various pursuits of man- 
kind. Therefore, don't be an ape ; don't be content merely 
to imitate others, and do the things they have done, but 
learn to think for yourself. 




THE comma is the storm center of the punctuation dis- 
cussion. About other marks there is little diverg- 
ence — either in theory or practice, but as to the comma, 
no two authors entirely agree, either as to the rules or 
their application. Also, the differences between "open" 
and "close" punctuation consists mainly in the varying use 
of this little mark. 

As a basis for studying some of the variations in the 
use of the comma by different standard publication houses, 
I recently compared two publications of Bayard Taylor's 
well known short tale, "Who Was She." Both are recent 
prints, the one coming from the presses of Charles Scrib- 
ner & Sons, and the other from Collier's Weekly. This 
story, in the Collier edition, comprises twenty-three pages. 
In the two editions there are forty-one discrepancies as to 
punctuation, all involving the use of the comma. In one 
case, one proof-reader employed a semicolon where the 
other used a comma, and in two or three other cases, one 
used tin- comma and dash where the other used the dash 
alone. This comparison revealed some other interesting 
facts which I shall refer to later on. 

Punctuation as a whole may be treated logically under 
three heads : 

(1) Intermediate punctuation, which includes the sep- 
aration of a sentence into its logical parts, mainly by the 
use of the comma. 

(2) Terminal punctuation, which includes the marks 
required at the end of a statement, or question, the marks 
used for this purpose being the semicolon, colon, period, 

interrogation point and exclamation point. As to the use 
of these, there is, among authors, little variation cither in 
theory or in practice. 

(3) Miscellaneous punctuation, or such special and 
conventional uses of marks as are not included in (1) 
and (2). 

Various authors have formulated from a dozen to 
twenty or more rules for the use of the comma, but it is 
probable that for the purposes of the practical student, 
these could profitably be reduced to a half dozen at the 

These comma rules may be conveniently grouped under 
two divisions : 

(1) The rules that apply in all cases coining under 
them, and in the application of which there is little or no 
variation in usage whether the punctuation be "open" or 

(2) The rules that apply in some cases but not in 
others, and in the application of which no two proof- 
readers are likely to agree. 

I shall first consider those rules that come under the 
first of these two divisions. 

Rule i. Set off with a comma anything included in a 
sentence, which is of an explanatory or parenthetical 
nature, which causes a break in the thought, or which ex- 
presses an additional thought not closely connected with 
'chat precedes or follows. 

Note. When the interjected matter occasions a marked 
or abrupt break in the thought, the dash or the parenthesis 
is used. 



Authors of books on punctuation usually formulate a 
dozen or more "rules" to cover the various cases that come 
under the above stated general law. The following sen- 
tences are covered by the general rule and sufficiently il- 
lustrate the various "little rules," a detailed statement of 
which is more likely to confuse than to illuminate the 
subject. In the sentences here given, the elements to which 
the rule applies are printed in italics. 

Sentences Illustrating Rule i. 
i. Of all the public men I have known, he is the most 

2. Upon the assemblying of Parliament, the King re- 

tired to his castle at Runnymede. 

3. His statement, however, does not help his case ; on 

the other hand, it makes his guilt more evident. 

4. The prisoner, with a look of defiance, faced his ac- 


5. His books, which zocre once very popular, are now 

seldom read. 

6. We could soon see the castle, which stands close to 

the lake. 

7. My friend, the doctor, would, of course, not agree 

to this. 

8. Gentlemen of the Convention, what is your further 


9. We apologized humbly, but the man ivould not be 

10. Then we heard the butler announce, "Luncheon is 

n. They will go in the spring, when the journey will be 

more interesting. 

12. He adhered to the maxim, "To the victors belong 

the spoils." 

13. It was Sherman, not Sheridan, who won that battle. 
Rule ii. Use the comma to indicate omitted words. 
This rule applies to words or phrases in a series where 

some or all of the conjunctions are omitted, also, to the 
members of a compound sentence in which the verb is 
omitted or "understood." 

Illustrative Sentences. 

1. The native forest trees include the oak, maple, birch, 

beech, ash, and elm. 
Note. Usage now reauires the comma between the last 
two members of the series, whether or not the conjunction 
is expressed. 

2. Love and hate, courage and fear, hope and despair, 

will ever remain the ruling passions of men. 
Note. Where words are used in pairs to show contrast 
of ideas, the comma is used instead of the conjunction to 
separate the pairs. 

3. Neither the carping of enemies, the flattery of 

sycophants, the outcry of the mob, nor the censure 
of his superiors could cause him to forego his duty 
to the State. 

4. Ethel studied French ; Mary, Spanish ; and Kate, 

Note. Here the commas after "Mary" and "Kate" show 
the omitted verb, "studied." 

5. Anderson then went to St. Louis, and I, to Chicago. 
Rules I and II are observed in most publication offices 

without much variation as to application, although, of 
course, in some of the cases under Rule I, there is room 
for difference of opinion as to whether the break in the 
thought is sufficient to require parenthesis, the dash, the 
comma, or, indeed, any punctuation at all. 

The following rules are observed by those who adhere 
to grammatical or "close" punctuation, but even with these 
persons, there is usually, not much consistency in applying 

Rule hi. Inverted phrases, or those not in their logical 
or natural order in the sentence, are set off by the comma. 

It is the application of this rule that occasions most of 
the differences between open and close punctuation. 

The following sentences illustrate the rule as applied by 
the close punctuationists. In open punctuation, most of 
the commas would be omitted. 

Illustrative Sentences. 
On the hill, stood a large oak tree. 
// Frank returns, I shall go. 

3. At last, we reached the end of our journey. 

4. Five days later, the President died. 

5. Examine them as you like, afterward. 

6. What are his best qualities, as a man.'' 
They promised to reply by letter, in a few days. 
Whenever I look a man squarely in the face, I form 

an opinion as to his character. 

Rule iv. The members of a compound sentence, when 
short and closely connected, should be separated by a 
comma, also other compounded elements when long and 
variously modified. 

There is much diversity in the application of this rule, 
some printing offices observing it to the letter, others ignor- 
ing it entirely. 

Illustrative Sentences. 

1. There had been rain during the night, and the earth 

was still moist and soft. 

2. The next day I took a large and late breakfast, and 

sacrificed my dinner. 

3. The two meant to keep the matter to themselves, but 

I thwarted them. 

4. The book was gone, and so were the faded flowers. 
The above sentences are from "Who Was She," the 

story I have previously referred to. Sentences 1, 3, and 4 
are here punctuated as in the Scribner edition, while in 
the Collier edition the points are omitted. In sentence 2, 
the Collier uses the point, but the Scribner omits it. 
About half of the forty-one discrepancies in punctuation 
in these two editions concern Rule III. The remainder 
are about eaually divided between Rules I and IV. Cur- 
iously enough, neither of the nroof-readers is consistent in 
applying any one of the three rules. Both of them have 
open punctuation in some paragraphs, and close punct- 
uation in others. 

Rule v. When the subject or the predicate attribute of 
a sentence consists of a clause, or when the subject with 
its modifiers is of considerable length, the tivo parts of 
the sentence are separated by a comma. 

The first part of this rule is usually observed rigidly, 
even in open punctuation, but the second part is largely a 
matter ot judgment. 

Illustrative Sentences. 

1. Whatever is, is right. 

2. Mv opinion is, that he will fail. 

3. Whoever knows him, admires him. 

4. Those of us who believed that the party leaders had 

been corrupted, refused to support the ticket. 

Rule vi. Use the comma zvhenever its use will prevent 

The application of this rule is so exceptional and de- 
pends so much upon the individual judgment of the writer, 
that it must be regarded more as a suggestion, than as a 
"rule." The following sentences, however, illustrate cases 
that are not really covered by any other rule, the commas 
being needed solely because of the peculiar phraseology 

Illustrative Sentences. 

1. The consumptive who sleeps in the open air fre- 

quently, may regain his health. 

2. I rode horseback, often accompanied by my friend. 

(or, "I rode horseback often, accompanied by my 
Note. The comma is necessary to show the application 
of the adverb "often." 

3. In the first cage we saw, there were a pair of bears. 

(or, "In the first cage, we saw there were a pair 
of bears.") 

4. I had seen the fellow before, recognizing him as a 

Note. Here, the omission of the comma, materially 
changes the meaning. 

5. His describing the process, clearly proves that he is 

an expert, (or, "His describing the process clearly, 
proves that he is an expert.") 

Note. As remarked in a previous paper, it is well, 
whenever feasible, to construct sentences in such a way 
that the meaning will not have to depend on the comma. 

I will remark in conclusion, that a judicious application 
of the six rules I have here formulated will prove suf- 
ficient for the ordinary student of punctuation. Those 
uses of the comma which fall outside of them are few and 
comparatively unimportant. One of the best ways to 
become famiiiar with these rules is to write from dictation 
good general matter that comes from some standard pub- 
lishing house, punctuating it according to your best judg- 
ment and then compare with the original, applying the 
rule that determines each case. As in the case of other 
departments of English composition, correct punctuation 
should become a matter of habit, rather than of mere 




By Francis B. Courtney, Minneapolis, Minn. 

THE originals of these signatures are marvels of beautv. The skill with which they were written and tne 
delicacy and artistic effect is wonderful. It is to be regretted that only,the forms of the letters and the 


harmony of lines can be retained in reproduction. The artistic touch is lost. 

r <^^bv^^V^^r" "^ 




m 0^!!^mOiilMmm mmmmm^S^KSi 

Text Lettering by Frank W. Martin, Boston, Mass. 

HERE is a style of letters that is especiajly adapted to diploma filling, as it is easily and rapidly made, and is 
generally preferred by those ordering such work. It is the Old English text, and while it may be made very 
plain and still he beautiful, it also admits of a great variety of ornamentation and can be finished very elab- 
orately. For ordinary diploma work no ornamentation is needed. This copy shows the letters as the text pen 
leaves them. They must be finished with a line pen. The names below show the uses of several styles and a good 
size for general work. A No. 2 pen should be used for letters of this size. 

A* U'MirXWij 33M. jIBecy 






THE length of the loops as compared with the height 
of the short letters is governed by the space the writ- 
ing is to occupy. For instance, if the line? are very 
near together, of course the loops must be short, even less 
than twice the height of the short letters ; and on the other 
hand, if the lines are quite far apart, the loops may be two 
or even three times the height of the short letters. The 
loops in the copy were made seven-eighths of an inch long, 

and the short letters three-eighths of an inch high. Rule 
light pencil lines to regulate the height, slope and spacing. 
The student will find it a difficult matter to slope the loops 
uniformly, and he will find it an advantage to rule slant 
lines. Study the principles carefully and note the arrow- 
heads showing the direction of the pen in making the 
strokes. Write many pages of each exercise and word, 
always studying the form and spacing with the most criti- 
cal care. 

By Geo. H. Polk, World's Correspondence School of Pen Art, Junction City, Ohio 

By Francis B. Courtney, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Here is a pastime that will create considerable interest 
among all those who are interested in letters. I have given 
here numerous illustrations of the human head in letters 
containing different expressions, some of joy, some of 
anger. I have even portrayed the associate editor's smiling 
countenance. It is exactly the way he looks upon receipt 
of a big ekib. 

The entire alphabet is at one's disposal, and with a 
little thought and care one can produce heads of letters. 

The eye is made from the A O C F and L; the ear 
from CSGIDGBRJPLEF; the nose from 
A O J U F M L V; the chin from EWJUSAFL; 
the forehead from TMNCHLZFS. 

Practice the letters comprising your name on your 
head. Give up writing your signature and use your letter 
head instead. 

The letters of your name producing a head of letters 
applied to your check in business transactions, would be 
an excellent method of heading off the forger. 


HEN anything really new and unique in the line 
of penmanship comes out, it usually has originated 
in the cranium of that little wizard imp who whisp- 

ers in the ear of Francis B. Courtney, and Courtney's car 
is always to the ground to hear its approach. Several 
years ago the imp confidingly said something to Courtney 
"about figures and writing. No sooner said than a system 
of figure writing was originated and sprung as a surprise 
on the unsuspecting, who said, "how easy." Who would 
have thought of it but Courtnev? 

Letterheads ! There is nothing new about the sound of 
the word. Most of us use it every day, but it remained 
for Courtney to interpret its meaning anew. 

It can be very appropriately said that Courtney's head is 
a letterhead, and a head of letters as well. It is so full 
of letters that he not only sees, but feels and hears them 
wherever he goes. He feels them in the gentle breezes of 
the springtime; he sees them in beautiful folds of the sum- 
mer clouds, in the branches of the trees, and in the grace- 
ful rolling of the breakers at the seashore, and he hears 
them in the whistling of the winter winds. He has even 
discovered them in the expressions of the human face. 
How natural thev look. They have always been there, but 
it remained for Courtney to see them. They would prob- 
ably have remained hidden forever had Courtney been a 
farmer instead of a penman. — Asst. Editor. 




7 & £Z&z6tiazMs : &%M07iaM/ 

By G. H. Lockwood, Chief Instructor, Lockwood-Stolz Art School 

Kalamazoo, Michigan 

I hope this month's lesson will find many of the readers 
of the Penman with materials ready to begin work in 

In the first lesson I tried to impress on you the im- 
portance of the flat study as a help to rapid advancement. 
I do not wish the student to overestimate the importance 
of drawing from the flat, for nature is the real source of 
art inspiration; original composition should be always the 
end in view, and the flat study is simply a means to an 

In this lesson I wish to emphasize the importance of 
outline. 1 well understand that there arc no outlines in 
nature, so to speak, and that objects become yjsible as 
masses of values defined against each other. But we are 
dealing with the practical problems of pen art, and have 
to do with lines more than with masses of color tones, and 
instead of defining our objects with tones one against 
another, we shall have to outline them definitely. 

As to this question of outline, it was man's first effort 
to make permanent his art impressions, and will ever re- 
main as the basis of art productions. Even the oil painter 
who deals with masses of tone and color, must first place 
his study properly on his canvas by means of outlitii 
a noted art writer has said: 

"The first efforts at Art with primitive man have always 
been in outline, just as we find in children's work. The 
aim is to get at the fact which the mind recognizes, rather 
than the appearance on the retina of the eye — to get the 
fact clearly stated without much regard to the means — 
and it is in this sense that drawing in its earliest employ- 
ment was a kind of writing. The Greeks used the same 
word for writing and drawing, and there is little doubt 
they considered the processes the same. All the arts of 
design or drawing in their early development are es- 
sentially conventional, in as much as they are produced by 
lines, and there are no lines in nature. There does not 
appear to be any evidence to show that the earlier nation-. 
such as the Babylonians, Assyrians, or Egyptians, had any 
knowledge of the fuller expression of form by means of the 
gradation of shade. We find them outlining their forms, 
and almost invariably in profile, then filling up the forms 
with fiat tints of color. Thus, until the time of the Greeks, 
the whole civilized world seems to have been satisfied with 
the impression of form only by outlines and flat tints." 

While outlines and flat tints no longer satisfy the ar- 

tistic appetite of the moderns, outline must ever serve as 
the artist's base of action. With a correct outline, wonder- 
ful things are possible; without it, no matter how perfect 
the blending of tones, how strong the value arrangement, 
how correct the composition, or how lofty the idea, all must 
be unsatisfactory, a house built uoon sand. The first thing 
for an art student to acquire is the ability to see form cor- 
rectly, and to place what he sees on paper in good outline. 

It is mainly for this reason, the necessity of a well de- 
fined, clean cut, accurate outline base, that all art teachers 
of note cling to the pen as a means of art development. 
There are other mediums that offer considerably less re- 
sistance : the pencil or charcoal will easily produce soft, 
flat, and modulated tones, hard to render with a pen ; the 
brush, or wash drawing is also comparatively easy ; a 
student ma» "slobber" around with a brush and get some 
kind of effect that will pass without being noticeably bad ; 
with the pen, however, it is different. As a noted oil 
painter said of it, "It is most awfully direct." It means 



(3//z& C^i^iaiy.^^^^m^i^ 


cither right or wrong; it admits of no subterfuge; it re- 
quires and develops accuracy, and also simplicity of treat- 
ment. It is the king of instruments for the art student. 
and in the hands of an expert, it is the most powerful 
medium of thought expression yet devised. Many an 
artist who can do passable work with a brush, falls down 
completely when he tackles a pen, while one who is pro- 
ficient with a pen need stop at nothing; brush drawing is 
a mere matter of learning the tool. I have had students 
who were advanced in pen technique, render brush draw- 
ing in good style at their first attempts. 

These lessons, then, will deal strictly with pen draw- 
ings. This particular lesson has to do with pen outlines. 
especially. Be it understood, however, that the pencil out- 
line must precede the pen, for it takes an expert indeed to 
draw with a pen direct. It is surely "too horribly direct" 
for such stunts. Work on your outline lightly with a 
pencil until it is approximately accurate before putting it in 
-pen and ink. As long as vour drawing is in the pencil 
stage it may be changed and perfected easily, and you 
should not be in a hurry to use the pen, for once you 
take it up, the lines become fixed and the mistakes stand 
out like a wart on a man's nose. 

Never begin your copy, sketch, or any drawing by first 
carefully outlining some part of it, say the nose, if a 
head ; or the head, if a whole figure. This is the wrong 
way. the way of ,-the amateur, the way that leads to unde- 
sirable, or, at the best, mediocre results. Block in your out- 
lines in pencil with straight lines, just as simply as you 
possibly can, paying no attention whatever to details. An 
entire figure may be blocked in with a very few strokes. 
Care should be taken if your figure is not vertical or hori- 
zontal in position to indicate its angle correctly. This is 
usually done by drawing an axis, or axial outline, through 
the center of your paper to match an imaginary one on 
your object of imitation. 

This "blocking in" idea comes hard at first, but take my 
word for it, it is the only way to get results that are worth 
while. Any attempt to draw an object, developing details 
accurately as you go along, will result in some parts of 
vour drawing being out of proportion with the whole. 
For instance, if you are drawing a face, the nose may be 
good, the ear good, the eye good and the mouth good, but 
they mav be so related to each other as to make a bad 
draft ing. The first thing necessary is to locate the features, 
the general shapes and angles as they fit into the head as a 
whole, then draw them accurately. 

To illustrate this blocking in idea, we will take the 
fancy head of the girl published in the last issue. Our 
diagram shows this head in two stages of development 
as it should be drawn in pencil before attempting to put in 
the outlines carefully with pen and ink. 

No. I is simplicity personified, yet it is an effective draw- 
ing telling a complete story plainly and forcibly. It was 
made by John Lilliso, an old student of mine, who for 
several years past has been .holding down a good job on 
the Chicago News. In blocking in this figure, be careful 
not to get the head too large, a common mistake in figure 
drawing. In finishing, see that you make no more lines 
than are in the study. Having successfully mastered this 
outline, put a circle or panel behind the figure and use 
some solid black, and a gray stipple or line, and make a 
contrast arrangement of it. For instance, the hair and 
waist might be black— or the panel or circle black, and 
the hair and waist gray or — well, you fix it to suit your- 

After the first essential, accuracy of form, has been ob- 
tained, there are various ways of rendering an outline. A 
regular even line is apt to produce stiffness, and for this 
reason the lines are usually broken, that is left open at 
places. (See No. l). This outline, however, is drawn 
with a fairly even and exact line of medium strength. The 
outlines in No. 2 are quite light, giving a delicate effect to 
the drawing. In cartoon No. 3 you notice two grades of 
lines, heavy outside, light inside ; a common arrangement 
and good for various purposes, but to be used intelligently, 
as the heavy outline effect is apt to leave the impression 
that the picture is "sawed" out of a board. Any stiff, un- 
broken outline will do this. 

A double line outline is frequently used to advantage, 
and is much softer than a single line, and much of the 
outline may sometimes be entirely eliminated to good ad- 
vantage—but of this, more later. If his first attempts are 
a little stiff, the beginner need not worry if his proportions 
are accurate, for accuracy is the first consideration. 


Now for some pen technique studies, I might give you a 
lot of exercises to do, but such work is uninteresting, and 
I have found that, on the whole, the student learns pen 
technique faster by copying the strokes of masters in this 
line of work. 

No. 4 is by Polenski, the well known newspaper illus- 
trator, now with the Chicago American, and the other by 
Williams, of the News. Both of them are good studies in 
pen rendering, and as such are worth all the time you will 
put on them. First outline carefully, as previously directed, 
that is, block in with pencil, outlining shadows, highlights, 
etc, enlarging about one-third. After vou have your "out- 
lines in good shape, transfer your drawing to a nice clean 
sheet of paper and finish with pen and ink. 

If you have never drawn much with a pen, these shading 
strokes will make you go some — try them. Lincoln's head 
on the cover of this issue is also a good study for you. 

I shall be pleased to criticise your drawings if you send 
them to me with return postage. 

W Mr. (i. H. Lockwond. ourchief Art Instructor, 

wrote the first course In 

Designing, Illustrating and Cartooning 

in ism-tlielirst course cf its kind In thecoun- 
try and has spent all histnn- ■ • • mi|»t- 

tecttng our methods. Write tor ''The Proof" 

ami other illustrated mat I >t. \ 

Department A, Kalamazoo, Mich. 


By E. L. Brown, Rockland, Me. 

FIFTY years ago or more, a person who could write a 
bold, shaded hand, and with a few magical sweeps pro- 
duce an apology for a bird, was recognized as an all- 
around penman ; today he would be a back number and 
could not earn his salt. These qualifications are all right 
as far as they go, but they are not broad enough in their 
scope to suit modern conditions. The penman of today 
must not only be capable of executing all styles of plain 
and fancy writing, lettering and pen drawing, but he must 
know something about brush and color illumination. 

However, don't neglect flourishing — it means more grace 
and harmony in your decorative drawing, aside from much 


For the position of hands see cut. 

Rest the hand on the little finger and swing the arm 
from the shoulder. As a rule, the strokes are made from 
the body, but it is often advantageous to grasp the pen as 
for ordinary writing and draw the arm towards the body. 

The ink used, should and must be, free-flowing and 
black for the best results. Study arrangement of lines, 
shades, etc., and do not allow one shaded stroke to cross 

Illustrating pen holding and position for flourishing. 





In sending specimens for criticism send no more than ih: 
of your best work and be sure to designate some letter 
for identification. 

M. E. C. — The main criticism of your work is in reference to 
the angular finishing turns of your letters. This is especially 
prominent in the small I's. The top of your Ps should be 
rounded instead of pointed. The top loop in the Capital L should 
be on the same slant as the small 1, and start the up stroke a 
little nearer the base line. Your minimum letters should be some 
shorter for their width. Your figures are all right. 

B. — Considering the change in style that you have made in your 
writing, it is very good. Your capitals show a fairly good move- 
ment, but your small letters are a little weak and shaky. Put 
more force in your movement. It may be free enough, but without 
the proper force behind it, your lines will be shaky. Use the same 
free movement in your writing as you do in your oval practice. 

Hazel T. — Your writing shows a fairly good movement. A little 
more attention should be given to the finishing turn in the m and n. 
That will give you a better connecting line. Make the capitals M 
and N a little taller with the same width. Close the small a at the 
top. Cross the loop of the g at the base line. 

\Y. B. M. — Your oval exercises look a little scratchy. Keep an 
even pressure on the pen and be sure that the pen is square with 
the paper, that is, both nibs of the pen touching the paper alike. 
Your capital A's are too slanting. A little more forward and back 
movement instead of the side movement would improve your 

R. Thomas. — Your ovals are fine. Your writing is good, but 
your small letters are strung out a little too much, taking too much 
space on the line. Make them a little more compact. Strengthen 
your capital letters by some good lively practice. 

M. H. — Your capitals are better than your small letters. The 
down stroke in the capital T should come straight to the line and 
stop. Make both parts of the capital H the same height. Your 
capital M is too wide for its height. Make it narrower and 
higher. The same for the capital N. Be sure that all down strokes 
in your small letters are on the same slant and come down to the 
base line. 

E. E. — The up stroke in your capital I is made in the wrong di- 
rection. Make it toward the upper right hand corner of the paper 
instead of toward the left. Make your capital M a little nar- 
rower. Begin the small r like the small m and n. 

R. D. Sorel — Your ovals are good and the movement on your 
small letters appears to be free. If you will blant the up strokes 
in your small m and n a little less, it will improve your writing. 
The beginnings of your letters U, W, N, V, Z, and Y, in fact all 
of that class, are too large. Do not make them larger than the 
small letter o. Your capitals M and N are not tall enough for 
their width. Better begin the capital P with an up stroke. Use 
t».e final style of t at the end of a word, but in no other place. 

L. J. C. Sorel — There is too much side action to the hand in 
your oval exercises. This is also true in your small letters. Prob- 
ably your paper is turned too far to the side. There should be no 
turn at the base in your small letters m and n. The turn should 
be at the finish. Are you sure that your pen holder points back 
across the arm, half way between the elbow and shoulder? 

T. D. Sorel — There is something wrong either with your pen or 
with the pressure you put on it which makes your oval exercises 
look so heavy. Find out what is the matter if you can. Your 
small letters are a little angular. There is a little too much side 
motion, thus making your letters too wide as well as too slant- 
ing. Straighten them up, especially the capitals D and O. Your 
capital J is too wide at the top. 

J. J. B. Sorel — Your movement is good, but it is not exactly the 
right kind. The longest way through your ovals should be on a 
slant with your writing. Your small w is too wide. The beginning 
oi your V, II and similar letters is too large. Discard your style 
of capital R immediately. A little effort for control will help you 

SUCCESS IN TEACHING the commercial ^ranches is assured with 
the aid of our practical books. They produce results. 

The popularity of our publications is due to the facts that the authors are 
men of large experience, both in business and as teachers; the subjects are pre- 
sented in an attractive manner, useless theorizing has been omitted, and the 
explanations are clear and concise. These books make study interesting to the 
student, tlie work of the teacher as light as possible, and they are also well ar- 
ranged for reference. 

Write at once for illustrated catalogue, and full information concerning 

Practical Spelling, New Practical Spelling, Letter Writing, Lessons in Let- 
ter Writing, Plain English, Exercises in English, New Practical Arithmetic, 
Commercial Law, Practical Shorthand, New Practical Typewriting, Progress- 
ive Bookkeeping, Mercantile Practical Bookkeeping, Complete Practical Book- 
keeping, Twentieth Century Business Practice. 

Many teachers include a copy of our Everybody's Dictionary Uest-pocket 
size) in each pupil's outfit. 

Be wise; use the best books. 




-OHIO i- 



L. B. Sorel — Your writing is entirely too large, and much of it 
is too heavy. It is individual in style, but some of the style is 
not of the best. Pattern after your copies a little more closely. 

J. M. J. V. Sorel— Your ovals slant in the wrong direction, and 
your writing slants the other way too much. It is entirely too 
large, and your pages do not show sufficient care to make criticism 

A. M. D. G. — Your writing is too heavy. Work for more free- 
dom and a lighter touch. Your capitals are too large, and your 
small letters would be better if they were not so large. Make a 
better selection of styles for your capitals. 

E. B. C. — From the appearance of your writing you are not 
holding your pen correctly. Be sure that both nibs of the pen 
touch the paper with the same pressure and that your hand does 
not rest on the side. The frequent angles in your letters indicate 
something wrong of this nature. Your down strokes should be as 
light as your up strokes. A little more systematic practice would 
bring better results. Always write on the line. Your pages appear 
as though you could .not see the lines or that you give no at- 
tention to them. 

M. E. M. — Your exercises show a fairly free movement, but they 
are a little weak. Put more strength in your movement and be 
sure" that the pen touches the paper evenly at all times. Watch 
your base line. i ne space between your small u's should be 
wider. Close the small a at the top. A little less slant in the 
connecting stroke of your small letters m and n. Your capitals 
M and N are too wide for their height. 

H. J. C— Your movems 
little less slant in the up 
will improve these letters. 

H. E. J. Scranton — Youi 
writing is generally good 
more open space between 
nprove the 

nt exercises look a little scratchy. A 

strokes of your small letters m and n 

As a whole your writing is very good. 

movement exercises are good and your 

in all of the pages submitted. A little 

the small letters m and n in your ex- 

11. Be careful of the down strokes in 

the small n. The upward and finishing strokes of your capital A are 

a little weak; give that special attention. 

C. la V. — Your writing is very neat, but it does not show enough 
of the movement of the arm. Be sure that the hand glides freely 
over the paper and that the center of all your movement is at the 
muscle just below the elbow. Bring all of your down strokes down 
to the line and make your up strokes all on the same slant. 

Long Branch — Your oval exercises are very good except that they 
slant a little too much. The down stroke in your small letter c 
should be nearly straignt. The letter c should be made more like 
the letter i with the hook at the top. The down strokes in your 
small i's are too heavy, and the turn at the base is too angular. 
The movement in your writing appears heavy. 

X. Y. Z., Xebr. — You have sent in some very good work on 
ornamental copies, and but little of it needs criticism. You should 
round out the base oval of the capital I, and also of the capital S. 
Some of the hair lines in your U, V, W and Y are a little un- 
steady. You must use a "driving, swinging, snappy motion." 

The most popular pens are 


av ^ nnHIHaHl ^ K MiaHBaaH 
Made in ISO Styles 

Fine Points, Al, 128, 333 

Business, 048, 1 30 

Broad Points, 312,313, 314 

Turned-up Points, 477 

531, 1876 

Esterbrook Steel Pen Mfg. Co. 

Works: Camden, X. J. 26 John St., N. Y 





Consists of Three Paris 

MODERN ACCOUNTANT— This text makes no use 
of business papers, but devotes the time and eBorts ol 
the pupil to the science of accounts. It lays a very 
thorough foundation and is followed by 

WHOLESALE ACCOUNTING, making use of the 
business papers. This is one of the strongest, clearest, 
most interesting and inspiring bookkeeping set on the 

MERCANTILE ACCOUNTING, the third and last 
part in this complete series, is a new work. It is an 
advanced set. both in its accounting and business 
practice features. It makes use of business papers. 
The transactions used are illustrative of a high order 
of business. The computations required are such as 
to test and develop the mental sinew of the student. 


Powers & Lyons 


New York 



By John F. Siple, Banks Business College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

By H. D. Cluly, Pupil of John F. Siple, Banks Business College, Philadelphia, Pa. 


6 Automatic Shading Pens, 2 colors ffl flft 

ink. alphabets and loslruclions, noslpald $*■ «UU 

Send stamps for Price List and Catalog. 


Indispensable Instruments of Progress and 
Perfection in Penmanship. 




"I hare been using 'BUSINESS AID* in 
on) college zvork. I consider il the best 
trot uf magazine in that line of work I 
have ever seen." -R J. Wallace. Denver. 

Besides giving the cream of practical 
business law nezes, covering bookkeeping 
commercial paper, etc.. BUSINESS AID 
now gives condensed news and views of 
the business zvorld, special articles on 
how to do things, etc. Trv it three months 
for 25 cents. Address "BUSINESS AID" 
112 Clark St., Chicago 111. 


No. 604 E. F. Double Elastic Fen 

No. 601 E. F. Magnum Quill Pen 
Sold by Stationers Everywhere 
Joseph Gllloll & Sons. Alfred Field £ Co.. Sole Ails 
93 Chambers St., New York 

1 1 parti 

I am the man who won the World - ! 
First l'rize in Penmanship. By rm 

new sysieui 1 can make an expert peri 
man of you by mail. 1 also teach Book; and Gregg Shorthand by mail 
Am ptnoliig my students as instructors 
in oommerc at colleges. If you wish to 
hitter penmaj write me foi 
nil ore, I win sendyouFRKE , 
..-..' Favorite Pens and a copy of 
the Ua sjtnuriar Journal. Inc'ose stamp 


2835 Euclid Ave.KANSASCITY.Mo. 

Learn to Write your name right. 25c. 

A trial lesson in Writing. 25c; Lettering. 25c: 
Flourishing. 25c: Card Writing, 25c: Draw- 
ing, 2Se: Designing. 25c: 25 cards, anyname, 
, 5c: F., ow . to ° r sanizeClasses,2Sc:Circular 
2c. Ad. Parsons, Penman, KeoKuK, la. 

For Business Colleges and Public Schools, designed by artists of skill 
and experience. We carry the largest variety of Stock Diplomas 
New Catalog ready about February First. Orders promptly filled— 
work guaranteed— prices the lowest. The H. & B. imprint stands 
for excellence. Is it on your diplomas? Resolutions Engrossed 

HOWARD & BROWN, Rockland, Maine. 


A well advertised Penmanship Correspon- 
dence School. It can be easily moved to any 
place desired.— bv purchaser. 

This is a splendid opportunity for a first- 
class penman, who is, or can be, perman- 
ently located. 

Other business relations require us to sell 
at once at a very reasonable price. 

If you are interested write now for particu- 
lars. Address. w. H. B. 
Care American Penman, Cedar Rapids, la. 

Pen Pictures 

Your picture drawn with India ink 16x20 
for $2.00, photo returned. Suitable for 
framing. Send good photo. Two large bird 
flourishes, 18x20. for $1.00, a work of art A 
set of ornate and business capitals for 10c 
Lards 15c a dozen. 20 lessons in ornate and 
business penmanship for $10.00, and asst 
of small flourishes for 50c. 

Brownwood, Texas. 

I will writer I DTIC 

your name ^AJXUD 
on 1 dozen for iSc 
I will give Free a pack 
of samples and send terms to agents with 
each order. Agents Wanted. 

Blank Cards. I have the very best blank cards 
now onthemaTket. Hand cut. Come in 17 
different colors. Sample 100 postpaid, 15c- 
1000 by express, 75c. Card Circular for red 

Comic Joker Cards. About 25 different kinds 
many new, 100 postpaid, 23c. Less for more. 

Ink. Glossy black or very best white, 15c 
per bottle. 1 Oblique penholder 10c. 1 doz. 
Galon's No. 1 pens, 10c. Lessons in Card 
Writing. Circular for stamp. 

W. A. BODE, Fair-Haven. Pa. 





Sample bott 











V. ("The shorthand of the English-speaking people."— Guilbert Pitman.) 


1 £ 

•A ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ V* 

If YOU haven't investigated GREGG SHORT- 

•A HAND — whether you are a school proprietor or 

S7 a teacher — we both lose. We will do our part. 

wp Will you do yours ? 

Yv Write for additional information and a copy of 

^ "Shorthand Contests." We shall want more ^5 

jjf "Gregg" teachers than ever this year. Why not p» 

^ prepare yourself to meet the demand? ^ 

*— , — 1 

2 The Gregg Publishing Company | 

~N New York Chicago V- 

Are You From Missouri? 

Then let us show you, that the Byrne Simp- 
lified Shorthand has merit. The way we 
propose to do this is to SHOW YOU by 
teaching you FREE OF CHARGE, if you 
are a teacher of shorthand, through our 
home-study department, so that yon may 
base your decision on a knowledge of the 
system, not hearsay. 

Yes. you have a good system, but there are 
inventions being made every day that revo- 
lutionize the world: so it is in shorthand, 
the Byrne Simplified is not a modification, 
but a revolution of the "Mystic Art," a sys- 
tem that is the same in business corre- 
spondence and in court reporting, a system 
that meets every requirement of the Com- 
mercial world, a system that is gaining in 
favor and in reputation daily. 

You are under no obligation if you ac- 
cept this FREE offer. Ask for particulars. 

Byrne Publishing Co., 


Home Study Courses 

Our school offers an op- 
portunity to study at home 
under the personal instruc- 
tion of leading professors in 


Mail mo 35.- for 3 
dozen Cards with 
your name Fancy 
Written thereon 

and get this Aluminum Card Case FREE. 

J. WILLIAMS. 873 Brandeis Blk., Omaha, Neb. 


/^X s. anv name, 

Z-£^fc*^ \ Plain or or- 

white or in 
five colors 
fSc dozen— superior work, finest card, writ- 
ten with the best ink. Cards written with 
Invisible Ink 25c doz. when card is heated 
writing appears a pretty black. Comic 
Cards, all new. twelve different kinds, writ- 
ten any style, 25c doz. 

PENMEN: I make the very best inks: 
Best black ink for card writing and orna- 
mental writing 25c bottle. India Ink espec- 
ially prepared for writing to be photo-en- 
graved 25c bottle. Permanent Glossy White 
Ink— crackless 2Sc bottle. Invisible Ink. 
new discovery, 25c bottle. Instantaneous Ink 
Eradicator: instantly removes ink from pa- 
per of any kind without injury to paper, 25c 
bottle. Five bottles of any of the above for 
$1.00. 500 very best white cards 75c. Color- 
ed cards, in the five best colors for white 
ink. 500-60C. L, M. Lewis, 

Wenatchee, Wash 

No. 1, by Miss Blanche Wiatt, No. 2, by Miss Kathryn McDonald, Pupils of Mr. Frank Hook, 
Temple College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

/ " h B 8 : 

: ;; :: S i 


A competent lady teacher of 
the Isaac Pitman shorthand for 
Technical High School in one of 
the leading cities of the State 
of Massachusetts. Applv, stating 
previous experience, to "E, "care 
Isaac Pitman & Sons, 31 Union 
Square, New York. 

Townsend Bldg. , New York City, in 
which is located the eastern office 
of the Gregg Pub. Co. 

For Sale. 

A old established business college 
in the middle west. The school is a 
good one and is doing a good busi- 
ness. Do not answer unless you 
mean business and have some money. 


Care American Penman. 

The Van Sant System of Touch Typewriting. 

The A. N. Palmer Company will hereafter keep a full supply of the Van 
Sant System of Touch Typewriting at Cedar Rapids, and at 
32 Union Square, New York. Eastern buyers will 
please send their orders to New York. 

It is not necessary to say anything in regard to the merits of this system. The fact 
that over 300,000 copies were sold with very little advertising within seven 
years after the system was first exhibited at the National Commercial Teachers' Associa- 
tion is an evidence of its popularity. 

It is published in both chart and pamphlet form for all the leading machines. The 
pamphlet form contains eight pages more matter, and forms a handy reference and prac- 
tice book for students after the completion of their school work. It keeps the lessons to- 
gether, and the transportation is only about one-third as much as on the charts. Retail 
price in either form SO cents. Liberal discounts to schools. 

In ordering state for what machine, and whether desired in chart or pamphlet form. 

The A. N. Palmer Co., 

Order from nearest point. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and 32 Union Square, New York. 



....Training School. 


Commercial Teachers 


Rochester Business 


For a copy of the syllabus of our normal training course for com- 
mercial teachers. 

Large class now receiving advanced instruction in the commercial 
texts and taking the special work in pedagogy and method. 

Applications for commercial teachers prepared by us constantly 
coming in from many states. 

A. W. Kimpson, Mexico, Mo. 

MoneV J n EngrOSSing A °y First-class Business School 

» ,. . . . i that Hpcirps for the pnming season an Al 

It is a pleasant and profitable 
business. Our lessons have been 
planned to prepare penmen to do 
allround pen and brush work: 
The kind that has a "money 
What materials to use; how to use them : 
How to design and work up sets of resolu- 
tions: How to get business and how to 
charge for your work are some of the valu- 
able features of our courses. 
Our catalogue will interest you. 


100 Boylston St. BOSTON. MASS 


that desires for the coming season an Al 
office man that can close business, also 
teach up to date business writing and get re- 
sults, should correspond with 
A. b. c. American Penman. 

Cards ! Cards ! Cards ! 

I will write your name on one dozen cards, 
■ither white or colored, for ISc. 

Tj^*-<^"—^ 1948 W. SOth St., 
'-^pyyg-^ Cleveland, Ohio. 

Samples cheerfully sent. 


if Mm 


Is Sufie 

to All Others, 

20 to 50 per .cent, shorter, 
nore legible, and can be 

; Learned 
in Halt the Time. 

With triis System It is 

"Dictation from Start to Finish. 

Sample Copy aid Mail Instructions 

to Shorthand Teachers. $1. 

Ferguson Shorthand Co. 


One Dozen Cards Free 

with your own name to prospective 
agents— students only.- Send two cent 
stamp for postage. Xo Postal Cards or 
request without stamp noticed. Send to- 
day. Address Prof. L.R. Woolflnslon, 

Box 124, Columbus, Ohio 

Profitable Pen Art, 

ANEW, fascinating 
tical Art. very ea 
id. Individual instru 


- FOR 


World's Correspondence School of Pen Art, 
Junction City, 0. 

Wtintarl Commercial Teacher for 

" ollieu. high-grade Eastern 
Business College, to begin next fall. Ap- 
plications are desired only from those who 
can measure up to the highest standard. 
Correspondence will be treated as strictly 
confidential. Give full particulars in first 
letter. Address EAST, 

Care American Penman. 


June 1st, young man to teach Arith- 
metic, Penmanship, Bookkeeping, 
and Gregg Shorthand. Salary $720. 
Address "Minnesota School," care 
of The American Penman. 

Get the Best. 

I am not an all round man— I am a penman. 
Competent judges say that I am the best in 
America for my age. I will write your name, 
in my very best band on one dozen cards, 
white or colored for 15c. On one dozen 
beautiful dtsign or comic cards for 20c. 
One set ornamental capitals, superfine, 20c 
One set business capitals, - - - 10c 
Scrap-book specimen, something unique, ISc 

Try me. I'll treat you right. Agents 
terms and samples for a red stamp. 

Agents wanted. 

A. W. Kimpson, 

Mexico, Mo. 


B usiness Colleges, High Schools, and would 
be Teachers to know that a superior Train- 
ing School for Teachers in boih the Com- 
mercial and Shorthand (Isaac Pitman) 
Courses, is conducted by the School of 
Commerce, Accounting and Finance, Picton, 
Ont., Canada. 

Mr. Sayers, the Principal, is an honor 
graduate of the School of Pedagogy and has 
had an experience of several years in both 
High School and Model School work, hav- 
ing been connected as an in-tructor for four 
years with a Government Training School 
for Teachers. 






you " 

will , 









By E. M. Barler 

By F. O. Pinks, Scranton, Pa. 


Offices:— Warrensburg, Mo.; Juniata, Nebr.; Pendleton, Oregon; 
Lander, Wyo.; Sherman, Texas; Richmond, Ky. 

We need some first-class men for Commercial Work. Vacancies at all 
times. No Registration Fees. Write any office. 

40 Commercial Teachers Needed 

For positions that are now open. Good salaries. 

If you contemplate making a change next fall, now is the time to register. Many of 
the best schools employ their teachers early in the season. 

Continental Teachers' Agency, 


FREE enrollment if you mention this paper. 

Head of Department Wanted 

We have been asked to find a man 
who is prepared to organize and take 
^ ^ full charge of the commercial de 

partment in one of the largest high schools in the country— a school having over fifteen 
hundred pupils in attendance. Work begins in September. We have other good open 
ings for high-class penmen and commercial teachers. No advance fee. Confidential ser. 
vice. Write us. 

The Specialists' Educational Bureau, 
ROBERT A. GRANT. Mgr. Webster Groves Sta., St. Louis. Mo. 

First Come, First Served. 

The principal of an excellent school says, "Get two Al commercial men for September, 
salary $120 to $150 per month. No evening work." Another says, "The man who gets 
this place must come through you. I shall leave it entirely to your judgment." Commer- 
cial, August 1, ten months' teaching, one month soliciting, salary $1200 to $1500. A square 
man says, "Begin now to look for a commercial man for me for September, $1200 to $1300. 
No one but you will get a chance at this." 

A citv principal says, "Get me an Al lady for touch typewriting July 1. salary $75-$85. 
This request will go to no other Agency." 

A city superintendent writes. "You have served us well. Now we want to get into the 
market early for a good all-round Gregg and commercial man for next September, salary 
$80 a month for nine months." Space is too much limited for more now. May we help 
you? Full information free. 



Commercial and Shorthand Teachers to 
know that they can secure the best positions 
through the CENTRAL TEACHERS' 
AGENCY. Established 1899. Registration 
frte: vacancies everywhere. Tell us today 
just what you desire. 

E. C. ROGERS, Manager, 
20 East Gay Street. Columbus. Ohio. 

Colorado Teachers' Agency. 

We want competent commercial teachers 
for desirable positions. We operate thruout 
the entire west. We have calls now for 
teachers of commercial subjects in high- 

Ex-State Superintendent, Manager, Denver, 
Col. Eastern office: 101 Market Street, 
Harrisburg. Pa. Southern office: 12-16 
Trinity Ave., Atlanta, Ga. 

A Specialty by. a Specialist. 

E. E. GAYLORD, Manager, 25 Essex St., Beverly, Mass 

up-to-date Busi- 
ness College in a flourishing town in N. E. 
Mo. Present enrollment fifty students. 
$750.00 will buy a good business College in 
a Kentucky town of over 17000 population. 
No opposition in either school. Write for 

Commercial Teachers are enrolling for 
changes the beginning of the year. Enroll- 
ment free. G. W. Beckler. 

J. D. Rice, Pres. Sec. and Treas. 

Chillicothe. Mo. 
U. S. Com'l Teachers' Bureau. 





The best book on the subject. Written 
and illustrated by the'Wizard of the Pen." 
A complete training in expert handwrit- 
ing. Hundreds of endorsements. Sent 
upon receipt of $1.50. Francis B. Courtney. 
Caton's College, Minneapolis, Minn. 

The Benn Pitman System 

Of Phonography is the National American Standard 
of Shorthand Instruction and Practise. 

Taught in the Public High Schools of 24 out of the 37 
Cities of the first class (100,000 population and over) 
in the United States. 
[Send for our selected list of Public High Schools]. 

Taught in more Private Commercial Schools than all 
non-Pitmanic systems combined. 
[Send for our selected list of Commercial Schools]. 

Taught in a majority of the Catholic Parochial and Insti- 
tutional Schools that teach Shorthand. 
[Send for our selected list of Catholic Schools]. 

Used by the Official Reporters of Debates of the United 
States Congress. 

Used by two-thirds cf the Shorthand Clerks holding Civil 
Service positions under the United States Govern- 

Used by a majority of the Official Shorthand Reporters 
in the State and Federal Courts. 

Published by 

The Phonographic Institute Company, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

■ENN PITMAN, President. 


(Note Ihe character of the JURORS) 


"We shall be pleased to receive forty copies of the first 
lessons for a trial in our classes." (Result: Order for 46 
completexopies.) — A. O. Thomas, Pies. Slate', Normal 
School, Kearney, Nebr. 

"They are certainly marvels— I cannot find even altypo- 
graphical error. They are as brief as any of the would-be 
systems, and in using them one has the satisfaction of 
knowing that he has a svstem that has stood the test of 
time.—/,. C. Riismisel, Department of Commerce St 
Joseph, Mo.. High School. 

36 copies of first lessons taken on trial at Antigo, Aug. 12. 

"Thus far we are more than pleased with the work " 
Sept. 3. 

Order for 36 copies for Stevens Point school, Sept. 6. 

"We are getting excellent results." Oct. 4. 

"We are much pleased with the (complete) books, and 

thank you for taking care of our needs so nicely " Oct 23 

—Showers & Martin Chain of Wisconsin Schools. 

"Glad to say our students like the work very much and 
are getting along nicely." (Introductory order for S7 
cooiea.)— Hilbarger & Price, Wichita Bus. College 
li ichita. Kan. 

"I will say to you frankly, I have received better results 
from your new book than from any other book I have 
ever used."- If. E. Cornell ,1 Graham .School of Short- 
hand. Battle Creek, Mich. 

"I received the advance lessons you sent me, and have 
been using them with the greatest of success."-/?. M 
Houston, The Federal Bus. College, Perth, Ontai io. 

"I believe the books are going to give great satisfac- 
V?",; ~-]i! s - 'I,- ST - Greenwood, State Normal School, 
J alley City, N. Dak. 

_"I ■ am highly pleased wilh the progress of our pupils "— 
J*. £. Cooper, Hill's Business College, Waco. Tex. 

Paoer Bound Copy Free | THE ARTHUR J. BARNES PUB. CO., 

Io Shorltiand Teachers 



"One superior to all others of the same 
kind."— Webster's International Dictionary. 


"The Typewriter superior to all other writ- 
ing machines."— Every Monarch user. 

The Monarch Typewriter Company, 

General Offices and Factory, 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

The 1 906 Edition contains many new and superior 
Specimens — Delights poor writers and good — It 
covers the whole field of Penmanship and 
Pen Work — 136 Pages — Including Complete 

Business Writing by A. N. Palmer. 
Ornamental Writing by F. B. Courtney. 
Flourishing by E. L. Brown. 
Drawing by Grant Wallace. 
Supplementary Work by Canan, Mills, 
Tamblyn, Lehman, Lister, Pierson, Doner, 
Gardiner, Kelchner, Bussard, Bartow, 
Henning, Zaner. Beacom. Walker. Holt, 
and others. 

Secured only as premium with the Ameri- 
can Penman. With the Student's Edition 
$1.00. With the Professional Edition $1.50. 
If you are already a subscriber, 50 cents 
will bring you 136 pages of top-notch skill, 
if you remind us of the month with which 
your subscription expires. Remember this 
and save delay. Money refunded if dis- 

The A. N. Palmer Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Have You 
Ever Stopped 
To Think 



( Incorporated) 

New York ai 


are used for instruction purposes by the 
schools of Unitecf States and Canada than 
all other makes of typewriters combined? 

Well, the Answer is Easy 

Students of shorthand and 
typewriting know that the 
Remington is the Standard 
machine, and that Reming- 
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Therefore students are wise 
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Kemington I ypewriter 

Sljc Uusinrsa Journal 



L. C. Horton is one of the many western men who have 
chosen to do most of their work in the East. He was born 
some forty years ago in Fulton County. 111., and his early- 
interest in penmanship was so great that when he succeeded 
in earning a dollar of the silver variety common in the West, 
he exchanged it for one of paper and sent it to Gaskell's 
Gazette for a year's subscription to that publication, and be- 
fore long he was producing work which compared favorably 
with the models set before him. 

His first teacher was a penman by the name of Raymond, 
but his real instruction in penmanship began when he entered 
the Cedar Rapids Business College. He afterward taught in 
the public schools of Muscatine and Nichols, Iowa, all the 
time improving himself in penmanship. This branch of his 
knowledge won him a position in a business school in Pueblo, 
Colo., but after remaining there for a few months he ac- 
cepted, in 1891, a position in Wilkesbarre, Pa. After a year 
in the Wilkes-Barre school, he returned to Illinois and be- 
came associated with G. W. Wallace in a school at Dixon. 

interested in handwriting from the standpoint of the expert, 
and has lately been connected with a number of notable cases. 
He is frequently called into consultation by the leaders of the 
profession, and his opinion is valued by them. 

His work as school manager has given him considerable 
experience in the preparation of advertising matter, and this 
is one of his strongest points. He also teaches mathematics 
and commercial law, and is perfectly at home as a lecturer. 
In connection with his work in arithmetic, he is the inventor 
of several devices, among them the Numeroscope and the 
Numerical Cabinet. 

Mr. Horton's habits are exceptional, as he not only ab- 
stains from tobacco and intoxicants, but from tea and coffee. 
He believes that a penman especially, in order to do his best 
work, should have the most abstemious habits. He is studious 
in his nature and in every way an ornament to the profes- 
sion. His off-hand penmanship ranks with the best produced 
in this country at the present time. Because of his modesty, 
he is not so well known as he should be, but his experience 
and worth cannot fail to count even more strongly in his 
favor in the future than they have in the past. 

The only break in the delightful home life of Mr. Horton 
has been the recent serious illness of Mrs. Horton, from which 
she is now happily recovering. They have two daughters, 
aged eleven and six years. 

When • 
and X 


L. C. Horton 

Leaving Dixon Mr. Horton entered the employ of the 
Stewart School, Trenton, N. J., remaining with them for four 
years. During that period he ma-rried Miss Anna Page 
Brown, a daughter of the City Treasurer, in 1896. From 
Trenton Mr. Horton removed to Xewark, to become head of 
the commercial department of Coleman's Business College. 
A flattering offer having been made to him by Banks Business 
College, he terminated his engagement in Newark at the end 
of the third year, and went to Philadelphia, but he was re- 
called to the Coleman school to act as principal and since 
that time has conducted this work with marked success. 

Fulton County. 111., has produced many well known pen- 
men and business educators, among them G. W. Brown, of 
the Brown chain of schools, D. L. Musselman. of Quincy, 
H. B. Henkel, of Springfield, and F. J. Toland, head of the 
Toland chain, with headquarters at LaCrosse, Wise. With 
these penmen Mr. Horton ranks well, and excels as black- 
board writer and instructor. About ten years ago he became